Animal Farm, a masterpiece novella by George Orwell was composed in 1945. It falls under novella since it’s shorter and contains a less intricate plot unlike a publication. The crux thing of Animal Farm is all about how Czarist Russia evolved to communist Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Orwell used the animal farm because the background representing Russia and the critters that dwelled in the farm because the who’s who in the Russian Revolution. The Animal Farm is an allegory-a story which uses literary devices to unveil hidden messages and meanings.
The Oxford Dictionary defines allegory for a story, poem, or picture that could be interpreted to show a hidden significance, typically a political or ethical one. In addition to that, Animal farm can be a satire. The exact same Oxford Dictionary defines a satire as using humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to mock, expose and criticize people’s stupidity or vices, especially in the context of modern politics and other social problems. Animal farm fits into these two categories aptly.
At the time once the book was printed, it was not that popular, didn’t control a widespread reading since Russia was an ally of the West in their struggle against German aggression under Hitler in World War II.
The writer himself wasn’t an anti-communist. Actually George Orwell is supposedly a socialist who supported the belief that businesses should be under the control of the working class (employees ) for the benefit of everyone, not only benefitting the elites, who commanded these industries. But he witnessed the tainted revolution of the communist in Russia, finally causing a change of perception.
Orwell was perplexed on how the communist had diverted, departed in their initial noble goals of looking for a classless society.
He was adamant to demonstrate another side of communism as it was taken too far with no check and balance and how the leaders of the cause succumbed to worldly pleasures, the exact same class bound pleasures they despised on other ideologies; hence the planet must witness the arrival of Animal Farm. Orwell had used allegory to the best of influence, to criticize the hypocrisy of communism, particularly its overzealous leaders, their activities and their thirst for merciless murders and mass killings to keep their status quo.
Using pigs, of all creatures, was the acme of the novella. In the notion of a layman, pigs are idle creatures, non-productive and gleefully end as meat in many taste buds. He utilized pigs because his protagonists and antagonists in Animal Farm for the very same reasons of how modern science had revealed quite surprisingly however, about these animals. Scientists want people to think of legumes as more than just meat. Among other abilities, pigs are known to have excellent long-term memories and they’re proficient at completing mazes and recognizing symbols, just like our near cousins-chimpanzees. They also have compassion and can learn from each other in classes.
Apart from that, Orwell had utilized pigs as an irony, debunking all of the myths surrounding these fleshy animals as idle but shrewd, gluttonous but conniving, immobile but strategist who’s lively in ideas, plotting and scheming a plan subtly. Pigs are fleshy, sized creatures known for their slobs. Orwell was fast in equating some world leaders particularly in the Greek ideology countries to pigs probably due to the state of hypocrisy that they lived their lives; drifting in the wealth made by the proletariat who for a significant portion of their miserable lives stayed poor and desolate, where else the leaders were fat, ugly and precariously healthy.
The Old Major in Animal Farm was a pig, depicted as wise and old, experienced and well-respected. This was relayed to the animals, who rejoiced at the prospect of preventing themselves from the clutches of the elites – the people. Orwell used Old Important to signify Karl Marx, the founder of Communism and the Communist Party, which is based on Marxism.
The utterance also highlighted on the idealistic world of communism. Thereby, the Russian Revolution in 1917 was motivated by people who believed big from the doctrines of communism. In Marxist methodology, it initially used economic and sociopolitical question to analyze and review the evolution of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change.
According to Marxist doctrines, class conflict within capitalism arises because of escalating contradictions between highly productive mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat (workers), and personal possession and appropriation of the surplus product in the kind of surplus value (profit) by a tiny minority of private owners known as the bourgeoisie. From the Animal Farm, the bourgeoisie were represented by Mr. and Mrs. Jones, the people who owned the animals, often ill-treating them. Mr. and Mrs. Jones may also be equated in direct reference to the last Czar of Russia – Nicholas II and his consort Alexandria who were cheered by the Russians at that time for turning Russia into World War I. Apparently, the animals exhausted their patience, started to rebel, finally booting the humans from the farm and took charge of their own fate.
Besides Old major, another pig personality was Snowball. Snowball rose among the leaders in Animal Farm. Snowball was depicted as a lively and an ingenious personality. He was given the job of spreading the attained glory of Animal Farm through the area.
However, fate had it differently when both Snowball and Trotsky were expunged by corrupt and callous people who lacked for power more than anything else.
Napoleon was another pig personality who climbed as a pioneer in the novella. As opposed to influencing different creatures and working through consensus, he covertly raised nine dogs into ferocious man-eating creatures. These nine dogs were his private army of bodyguards which he manipulated and used to accomplish his objectives, no matter how treacherous and brutal they were.
The KGB completed all of Stalin’s commands religiously without fear or favour.
The false confessions of disloyalty in Animal Farm, and the subsequent executions were modeled at Stalin’s great purge in the 1930s where anyone who’s viewed as a counter-revolutionist was murdered mercilessly.
Squealer, a different character in Animal Farm is a pig who constantly spread persuasive messages encouraging the leader’s goals and objectives. He reinvents the history and rules to be able to confuse the other animals in the farm. He could also signify Pravda- the communist paper in Russia that was the official propaganda mouthpiece of the party in the 1930s. Together with his wizardry like manipulative and words articulation, Squealer maintained the public (the creatures ) calm and under control with his frequently misleading and jagged messages and announcements.
Along that line, some made it to the history books as being exemplary or loathed.
Students won’t only learn the English Language, but also the many literary devices – allegory, satire, irony, metaphor and personification which include it. The novella comprises plenty of humour where the author mocks the activities of their leader and students will also have the ability to apply their thoughts from the box to identify some people had managed to receive power, how some claimed that this power whatsoever, how some misused the power entrusted on them for their personal gains and schedule, how some abused their power using violence and threats, and how some had dropped to the people-power insurgencies.
Aside from that, the historic events representing this novella will offer an insight of Communism and Russian history.